How to correctly select tools and program for CNC

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How to correctly select tools and program for NC machine tools

(10:32:13) the selection of NC tools and the determination of cutting parameters are important contents in NC machining process. It not only affects the machining efficiency of NC machine tools, but also directly affects the machining quality. The development of cad/cam technology makes it possible to directly use CAD design data in NC machining, especially the connection between DNC system microcomputer and NC machine tool, so that the whole process of design, process planning and programming is completed on the computer, and there is generally no need to output special process documents

at present, many cad/cam software packages provide automatic programming functions. These software usually prompt relevant problems of process planning in the programming interface, such as tool selection, machining path planning, cutting parameter setting, etc. as long as the programmer sets the relevant parameters, he can automatically generate NC programs and transmit them to the NC machine tool to complete machining

therefore, the selection of tools and the determination of cutting parameters in NC machining are completed in the state of human-computer interaction, which is in sharp contrast to the processing of ordinary machine tools. At the same time, programmers must master the basic principles of tool selection and determination of cutting parameters, fully consider the characteristics of NC machining when programming, and be able to correctly select tools and cutting parameters

types and characteristics of commonly used NC machining tools

NC machining tools must adapt to the characteristics of high-speed, high efficiency and high degree of automation of NC machine tools, generally including general-purpose tools, general-purpose connecting tool handles and a small number of special tool handles. The tool handle should be connected with the tool and installed on the power head of the machine tool, so it has been gradually standardized and serialized. There are many ways to classify NC tools. According to the tool structure, it can be divided into: ① integral type; ② Inlay type, using welding or machine clamp connection, machine clamp type can be divided into non transposable and transposable; ③ Special types, such as compound cutting tools, shock absorbing cutting tools, etc. According to the material used to make cutting tools, it can be simply divided into: ① high speed steel cutting tools; ② Cemented carbide cutting tools; ③ Diamond tools; ④ Other material tools, such as cubic boron nitride tools, ceramics, in order to make the residual cleaning resin flow out of the tools, etc. In terms of cutting technology, it can be divided into: ① turning tools, including excircles, inner holes, threads, cutting tools, etc; ② Drilling tools, including drill bits, reamers, taps, etc; ③ Boring tools; ④ Milling tools, etc. In order to meet the requirements of CNC machine tools for tools that are durable and stable, but the price is very low, fixed, easy to adjust, replaceable, etc., machine clamp indexable tools have been widely used in recent years, with the number reaching 30% - 40% of the whole CNC tools, and the amount of metal removal accounting for 80% - 90% of the total

compared with the tools used in ordinary machine tools, CNC tools have many different requirements, mainly with the following characteristics: ① good rigidity (especially rough machining tools), high precision, low vibration resistance and thermal deformation; ② Good interchangeability, convenient for quick tool change; ③ High service life, stable and reliable cutting performance; ④ The size of the tool is easy to adjust to reduce the adjustment time of tool change; ⑤ The cutting tool should be able to reliably break or curl chips, so as to facilitate the removal of chips; ⑥ Serialization and standardization to facilitate programming and tool management

selection of NC machining tools

the selection of tools is carried out in the human-computer interaction state of NC programming. The cutting tools and tool handles should be selected correctly according to the processing capacity of the machine tool, the performance of workpiece materials, processing procedures, cutting parameters and other relevant factors. The general principle of tool selection is: convenient installation and adjustment, good rigidity, high durability and precision. On the premise of meeting the processing requirements, try to choose a shorter tool handle to improve the rigidity of tool processing

1. Non metallic material experimental instruments

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